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Virtuální prohlídka - Třebíč

The Town's history in dates

1101 Oldřich of Brno and Litold of Znojmo, Moravian members of the Přemyslid dynasty, founded “amidst the forest of Třebeč” (perhaps originally a roadside station of Třebek) a Benedictine Monastery. Their deed was actually an act of prestige and power by which the appanage princes – namely Oldřich of Brno who strove for Prague’s princely throne – expressed their great political ambitions. The monastery was supposed to serve not only as the family burial ground of the Konrad dynasty, but it also demonstrated the unity of both appanages (Brno and Znojmo). In 1104, the Bishop of Prague Heřman consecrated St. Benedict’s Chapel, and in 1109, the Bishop of Olomouc Jan II consecrated the abbey Church of Virgin Mary’s Assumption.

31.8.1277 The first mention of Třebíč as a town in a document of Abbey Martin issued for Třebíč’s citizen Heřman, who is considered the locator of the town. Třebíč was founded on a hitherto less settled area located between the colonies of Stařečka, Horka and Jejkov. The northern boundary of the town was delimitated by the Jihlava River. On its left bank lied Podklášteří, a liege village of the Benedictine Monastery.

29.8.1335 Margrave Karl (later Emperor Karl IV) provided Třebíč with the Municipal Laws on the pattern of the Royal Town of Znojmo. The document implies that Třebíč was neither a complete settlement nor was it properly fortified. Fortification walls had to be erected within three years. The acquisition of the privileges, confirmed by Karl’s father – the Bohemian King John of Luxembourg, meant a significant step on the way to a full-valued (institutional) town.

1338 The first report on presence of Jews in Třebíč or its vicinity (in the so-called Nuremberg martyrology). The population and the place of the settlement (Podklášteří?) of the Jewish community are not known.

1404 Moravian Margrave Jost confirmed the existing privileges of the town.

1405 The municipal hospital, an important institution sheltering old, pour or disabled citizens was established by Councillor Janek. The building of the hospital was located near the town wall and St. Martin’s Church. A new hospital was set up in the quarter of Domky near the Jordán pond in 1519.

13.1.1406 The first preserved chart issued by the Municipal Council evidences its structure. Apart from a newly constituted Municipal Council (moderni scabini), there was an old municipal council (antiqui scabini) fulfilling an advisory or revisory function. The document also attests to a relatively well developed municipal administration system.

1410 The municipal book of Jihlava contains a statement of Jan, a son of Zdenek of Brno, who confessed that back once, he retained a Jew (or Jews) in Třebíč. Based on this record, existence of a Jewish community could be assumed in Třebíč or its vicinity (Podklášteří?) even close before the Hussite revolution. In this year, the Jewish town was despoiled during the fights between sons of Karl IV, Prokop and Jost, on whose side Třebíč stood.

15.11.1413 The Bohemian King Wenceslas IV confirmed the town’s privileges granted by the Moravian Margrave Karl (1335) inclusive Jost’s confirmation (1404). Shortly before this date, the power of the viscount was weakened when he was replaced at the head of the municipal council by a burgomaster.

8.5.1421 Emperor Sigismund confirmed, as gratitude for loyalty, all hitherto privileges of Třebíč granted by Moravian kings and margraves.

1424/1425 – 1435 The Hussites occupied the town and the monastery of Třebíč, which both became an important base of the Hussite military power in Moravia. After expulsion of Hussites in 1435, Třebíč was returned to its former suzerainty, the abbot.

24.6.1435 Moravian Margrave Albrecht V. Habsburg granted the town the right to hold two yearly markets.

Around 1440 Abbot Trojan quitted the Caduca Right for the benefit of Třebíč’s citizens, i.e. the right of lordship to inherit from testators who died without a male heir. The citizens of Třebíč were now allowed to bequeath their property freely.

31.7.1454 The Bohemian King Ladislav the Posthumous confirmed the existing privileges and granted Třebíč the Mile Law constituting the monopoly position for the citizens in trading, beer brewery and sale within the circuit of one mile from the town and the privilege of the exclusive sale of salt.

27.11.1461 The Bohemian King George of Poděbrady confirmed the privileges of Třebíč and provided the town with the law to collect fees from imported beers from Prague and Svidnik and from salt.

1468 A tragic landmark in the history of the town which was conquered and burned out by the Hungarian army of Matthias Corvinus which, later on, occupied also the monastery. The Bohemian-Hungarian wars terminated the existence of Třebíč as an abbey town which was possessed by the secular suzerain until the abolishment of the patrimonial administration. The monastery did not recover from the war disaster any more. The property of the convent and the town destroyed by fire were acquired as a pledge by Zdenek of Sternberg.

1480 The property of the monastery and the town was acquired by Jaroslav and Vaněk of Lomnice.

15.12.1490 The Bohemian King Vladislav Jagello pledged the insolvent estate of the monastery in Třebíč to Wilhelm of Pernstein, one of the most powerful and wealthiest aristocrats in the country. Wilhelm of Pernstein then acquired back some of the villages, he paid off a large number of mortgage deeds and languishing payments and carried out the most necessary repairs of the monastery buildings damaged.

1500 Wilhelm of Pernstein relieved the burghers from the obligation to tap wine of the manor. One year later, he confirmed the law of free inheritance to the town.

1516 Johann of Pernstein became the new landlord in Třebíč. During his rule, economic conditions got stabilized.

25.4.1525 An agreement between Johann of Pernstein and Arkleb Černohorský of Boskovice, by which Johann made an assignment for the benefit of Arkleb’s son Jan Jetřich who got possession of the manor in 1528. Under the lords of Boskovice, adherents to Lutheran Faith, monks were expelled from the monastery in Třebíč. The new lords are also assumed to have intervened into the religious situation in the town to the detriment of Catholicism.

1528 – 1546 Sometime in these years, Jan Jetřich Černohorský of Boskovice repudiated Jews from the manor.

1546 Třebíč was in the hands of Johann of Pernstein again.

1547 On request of the Municipal Council, Johann of Pernstein confirmed not only the Caduca and Mile Law, but also the decision of Jan Jetřich Černohorský of Boskovice on repudiation of Jews. He intervened in guilds’ matters decidedly as well.

1556 Vratislav of Pernstein gained the abbey of Třebíč and the provostry of Měřín from the Sovereign Ferdinand I into allodial possession and he immediately decided for their sale. The core of the former monastery and the town were purchased (1556/1557) by Burian Osovsky of Doubravice, who so laid the foundations of the manor in Třebíč. Třebíč became a centre of the patrimonial administration and the residential town of the new lords.

1557 The owner of the manor in Třebíč became Burian Osovsky of Doubravice (land registry record in 1558).

7.3.1560 Emperor Ferdinand I restores the validity of all privileges of the town granted by Margrave Jost and King Wenceslas IV, Albrecht, Ladislav, George, Vladislav and Wilhelm of Pernstein.

1568 Smil Osovsky of Doubravice got possession of the manor in Třebíč. He was an educated, literarily active aristocrat holding to the Bohemian Fraternity Union and later a respected politician.

1573 Smil Osovsky of Doubravice issued the so-called Peasant Constitution. Acquisition of a land register (list of liege obligations towards the landlords) from the same year attests to efforts to soon create from the dominion a very firm and compact unit. According to the land register, there were 376 houses in Třebíč inclusive Podklášteří and the Jewish Town with approx. 2600 inhabitants. Compared with the land register from 1556, only three houses were added. The land register also documents that Jews had returned to the manor of Třebíč. At that time, two Jewish families lived in Stařečka and six families in Podklášteří.

1574 The copyist of Náměšť, Eliáš Střelka Náchodský, wrote a chronicle of Třebíč from the foundation of the monastery till 1574. The chronicle was inserted in the ball top of the town tower during its repair.

1582 Smil Osovsky of Doubravice exacted a relatively prestigious privilege for Třebíč – Red-Wax Sealing Law – from Emperor Rudolf II.

1583 Smil Osovsky of Doubravice issued the so-called Municipal Constitution which on one hand emphasized the significance of Třebíč as a market centre of the manor; on the other hand, the rights of the council were largely curtailed. Třebíč was often faced with increasing pressure of the manor estate.

1605 Outside the town, a new cemetery was founded at the late gothic Trinity Church because the cemetery at St. Martin’s Church was not sufficient any more.

1607 Smil Osovsky of Doubravice granted a colature chart for the Evangelic parish Church of St. Martin and the right to establish the Augsburg confession. Additionally, he permitted to bury the deceased at the small Trinity Church.

1614 Catherine of Waldstein, widow after Smil Osovsky, married an important Moravian politician, Karl the Elder of Žerotín. But she remained the sovereign possessor of the manor in Třebíč.

1618 – 1648 Period of Thirty Years’ War. Compared to other Bohemian and Moravian towns, Třebíč suffered only little damage. The town did not avoid vexatious stays of several armies, but it was spared from direct military actions, so the housing stock was hardly damaged (only 7 % of the houses, largely buildings of lower quality and price).

1628 Catherine of Waldstein decided to assign the manor of Třebíč to her brother, Catholic Adam the Younger of Waldstein, Emperor’s Councillor and the Supreme Burgrave of Prague as she was forced to leave together with her husband, Karl the Elder of Žerotín, for exile due to her religious confession. The busy Adam of Waldstein confided the administration of the manor to his son Rudolf who tightened the liege obligations in the dominion.

Around 1630 St. Martin’s parsonage was occupied by a Catholic priest. In spite of this, the majority of citizens were still of Evangelic faith for a long time afterwards. Systematic recatholization activities took place in Třebíč as late as 1657 – 1661.

1656 The dean of Polná, Kryštof Kazimír Burešovský, sent the Emperor a large-scale complaint about existence of 21 sectarian factions in Třebíč. The investigation of the matter was delegated to Engelbert, the Abbot of Nová Říše, and the lord of Moravské Budějovice, Rudolf Jindřich of Schaumbrug, who confirmed the overwhelming majority of non-Catholics in the town and herewith also the justice of the complaint. Further anti-reformation activities were delegated to the Jesuits from the Jihlava College.

1671 The elevation of St. Martin’s parsonage to deanery under Parson Vojtěch Keil was a significant symbol of the victory of the Catholic confession in the town.

1686 – 1693 Arrival of the “enlightened fathers” Capuchins to the suburb quarter of Jejkov, where at the place of the former Fraternity Union, the Capuchin Monastery and Transfiguration Church were built (1693).

1702 The dean of Třebíč, Martin Josef Matlocius, received an approval from the Pope to set up a Laic Ecclesiastical Confraternity of St. Anna that was joined by many members in a short time. The recatholization of the town had been accomplished.

1703 – 1708 A dispute of the town with the lords. The motive was an inconvenient distribution of land tax and some other economic matters. The case was decided in favour of Třebíč only after various protractions by a rescript of Emperor Joseph I.

1704 Johann Karl of Waldstein had the presbytery of the basilica separated from the rest of the building and set up St. Prokop’s Chapel in it. Later on, the entire church was dedicated to this Saint.

1723 The time of formal constitution of the Jewish ghetto in Podklášteří. Johann Josef of Waldstein ordered the Christian housekeepers whose houses were located inside the Jewish estate to exchange their properties with the Jews owning houses in the Christian built-up area.

1724 – 1726 A conflict of the burghers in Třebíč with Johann Josef of Waldstein. The ground of the dispute was contributions but soon, the subject of the lawsuit became also some encroachments of the manor’s officials. The dispute was finally settled by a mutual agreement of the conflict parties that resulted in favour of the town which thus made important progress on the way to emancipation towards the patrimonial administration.

1725 – 1731 Restoration of the severely damaged basilica continued. Johann Josef of Waldstein charged one of the most prominent builders in Czech lands and creators of Baroque Gothic, František Maxmilián Kaňka, with this restoration.

1728 – 1731 Another dispute of the town with Johann Josef of Waldstein who was addressing the burghers of Třebíč and their children as liegemen. Formally, the dispute was not settled because Johann Josef of Waldstein died before the conflict could be solved. His successor, Franz Herrmann Arnost of Waldstein renounced for his person to the right of addressing the citizens in Třebíč as liegemen.

1742 The Prussian King Frederick the Great stayed with his soldiers in Třebíč. He was accommodated in the public house Black Eagle. The damage due to the invasion of the enemy was particularly caused by requisitions for food supply of the army.

1.1.1755 Třebíč lost the right of execution of the Criminal Law.

1786 Establishment of the Regulated Municipal Council in Třebíč eradicated the last traces of Czech language in offices. Also the dependence of the town administration on the citizens diminished.

1787 The Municipal Council was constituted for town administration, which meant the end of self-administration and the beginning of consistent germanization.

1805 The French corps of Marshal Bernadotte passed through the town. He was welcomed by Parson V. Dvořecký. Bernadotte rejected accommodation in the castle and stayed in the house of Ignác Hladík. 300 officers came with him, and the town had to supply food for them and the army for three days.

1821 Fire broke out and destroyed 228 houses.

1822 Another great fire smote not only the inner town, but also the suburbs (290 houses, the town hall, both parsonages and schools burnt out). The damage was estimated to 1 million florins. When, several days after the fire, the tall Renaissance gable of the later public house Three Princes collapsed, the District Authority issued the order to pull down gables on all houses that burned out, whereby the town lost its Renaissance character. Further devastating fires damaged the town in 1847 and 1873.

1835 Physician Jan Miloslav Haněl came to Třebíč. He was the most prominent propagator of Czech national consciousness in the town.

1848 The revolutionary year was nothing like dramatic in Třebíč. Nevertheless, the national orientation of the townsfolk was established, whereby town’s inhabitants were divided into the Czech (J. M. Haněl) and the German (I. Glas) party. The political changes in the mid-19th century made Třebíč to the seat of state administration (district marshal, district court, tax office, police station).

1850 By abolishment of the Municipal Council and establishment of a new communal self-administration, situation for changing relations in the representation in the municipal council was created in order to meet the real national stratification of the residents who were 90 % of Czech nationality. This could be enforced as late as 1882. In 1850, the district court was established in the town. Třebíč also became the seat of the tax authority and a police station was set up here.

1855 Due to an administrative reform, Třebíč became the seat of the District Marshal Authority. A common district office was established for administration and court.

1861 Constitution of a community education institution (Měšťanská beseda), the organizational centre of the Czech national life in the town. It was founded already in 1849 as the first Czech organization of Czech bourgeoisie.

1866 During the war between Prussia and Austria, Třebíč was besieged by the Prussian army. Cholera spread in the town and 41 residents and 36 Prussian soldiers died.

1867 Victory of the Czech party in the town elections. Třebíč belonged to few major towns in Moravia where Czechs managed to take possession of town administration relatively soon. The first Czech mayor with national feelings was elected Ignác Přerovský.

1869 Foundation of the voluntary fire brigade in Třebíč (by Titus Krška). It was the first fire brigade in the southwest of Moravia.

1871 Foundation of a Czech grammar school in Třebíč, the first Czech secondary school in western Moravia. Its new building was constructed in 1889. The Community and Education (later National) House (Měšťanská beseda), the organizational centre of the Czech cultural life in the town, was opened.

1873 The German minority could occupy again the council of Třebíč with intensive support of the central authorities. The Municipal Council had not a single Czech deputy.

1879 Ferdinand Kubeš founded a factory for soda water production. (Since 1925 the famous ZON).

1882 The definitive seizing of the council by the Czech party.

1883 Permanent activities of the sports organization Sokol.

1884 The first regional newspaper began to appear regularly – Listy ze západní Moravy (Journal of Western Moravia). This weekly newspaper was replaced by Hlasy ze západní Moravy (Voices from Western Moravia) in 1898.

1885 The sculptural group of St. Cyril and Methodius symbolizes the victory of the Czech national party in the political life of Třebíč. The author of this sculpture was B. Seelig who worked according to the draft of L. Šimek.

1886 The town became part of the transverse railway from the former station of Boží Požehnání (today Zastávka u Brna) to Okříšky. This railway linked not only Třebíč with Brno but also Vienna with Prague and Northern Germany and via Brno, Přerov and Ostrava with the Kraków industrial conurbation and Eastern parts of the Empire (Halič).

1888 The first socialist working-class society in Western Moravia was founded in Třebíč. The labourers of Třebíč chose the form of an education institution which was named the Educational and Cultural Centre for Working People (Dělnická beseda) in Třebíč.

1893 Třebíč became an important centre of working-class movement. The Professional Shoemakers’s Association for all Moravia was founded here. In this year, the first magazine for the working class in Western Moravia entitled Obuvník (Shoemaker) was published.

1898 Foundation of the Museum Association specialized in collecting and storing artistic subjects from the town and Western Moravia. The custodian of the collections was František Doležal. In this year, electric lighting was gradually installed as well as electricity in households.

1899 The first stage of the town’s electrification. Ganz and company from Budapest built a steam power station in Na Polance.

1900 Great field manoeuvres of the Imperial and Royal Army shortly visited by the throne successor Franz Ferdinand d’Este. The manoeuvres culminated with a field mass in Karlovo Square on 18th August.

1901 – 1903 Town’s hospital with 60 beds was established at the expense of 388 000 crowns. The capacity was increased by 30 beds the following year. In 1902, first patients were admitted to the hospital.

1903 Třebíč became part of the long-distance telephone network. The Regional Exhibition for Agriculture, Industry and Trades was held in summer months. 1 500 exhibitors participated in it.

1904 The Industrial Museum was founded. It was united with the Town’s Museum in 1931.

1912 The first permanent cinema was established in the city. Its owner was Eduard Hornych jr.

2.11.1918 Before being elected President of State, T. G. Masaryk was named the honourable citizen of the town Třebíč.

1926 J. Gočár is the author of the UP Works in Rondo-cubistic Style.

1928 T. G. Masaryk together with General of the army Jan Syrový (born in Třebíč) visited Třebíč.

1931 Tomáš Baťa bought the Busi (Budischowsky – Siegle) company. The firm became a branch plant of the Baťa factory in Zlín.

1933 The building of the Town’s Savings Bank and the river bath by architect B. Buchs were finished. In both constructions he masterly applied elements of functionalist architecture.

1935 Celebrations of 600 year anniversary of elevation of the Town Laws (1335).

17.6.1936 The town was visited by the newly elected President Dr. Edvard Beneš. On 5th May he was nominated honourable citizen of the town.

1939 – 1945 Time of German Nazi occupation that was mainly fatal for Jews.

1944 After several previous failed attempts, Podklášteří was finally administratively united with the town.

1960 After abolishment of the Jihlava Region, the large District of Třebíč together with the former District of Moravské Budějovice and many villages from other districts became part of the South Moravia Region.

1970s and 1980s During modernization and enlargement of the town, several interventions were made causing irrecoverable historical losses. When the brewery was being demolished, a part of the town walls and a stone tower were destroyed. Further large demolitions near the town centre practically removed the historical quarters of Horka and most of Stařečka. Sanitation of the Jewish Town was also in consideration.

1978 – 1985 The population and social economic structure of the town were largely effected by the waterworks Dalešice and the nuclear power station at Dukovany. Třebíč had 12 450 inhabitants in 1921, but in 1980 as many as 24 450 and today the population reaches 40 000.

2003 The new millennium in the history of Třebíč was started by an event of huge cultural and historical significance: St. Prokop’s Basilica and the Jewish Town with cemetery were included in the UNESCO list of World Cultural Heritage.

 

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